Jan Bender, Matthias Müller, Miguel A. Otaduy, Matthias Teschner and Miles Macklin, A Survey on Position-Based Simulation Methods in Computer Graphics, Computer Graphics Forum 33, 6, 2014

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Abstract

The dynamic simulation of mechanical effects has a long history in computer graphics. The classical methods in this field discretize Newton's second law in a variety of Lagrangian or Eulerian ways, and formulate forces appropriate for each mechanical effect: joints for rigid bodies; stretching, shearing, or bending for deformable bodies; and pressure, or viscosity for fluids, to mention just a few. In the last years the class of position-based methods has become popular in the graphics community. These kinds of methods are fast, stable and controllable which make them well-suited for use in interactive environments. Position-based methods are not as accurate as force-based methods in general but they provide visual plausibility. Therefore, the main application areas of these approaches are virtual reality, computer games and special effects in movies.

This state-of-the-art report covers the large variety of position-based methods that were developed in the field of physically-based simulation. We will introduce the concept of position-based dynamics, present dynamic simulation based on shape matching and discuss data-driven upsampling approaches. Furthermore, we will present several applications for these methods.


Images

Cloth

Cloth

Wrinkle Mesh

Wrinkle Mesh

Armadillos

Armadillos

Ducks and tori

Ducks and tori

hair

Hair simulation